If you want to be a carry, then your first priority should be farming and playing safe. You should be going to the safe lane with a babysitter hero, like Shadow Shaman or Crystal Maiden. Your first item after Phase Boots should be Battle Fury.If you are laning against ranged heroes then you should probably get Poor Man's Shield to decrease the incoming damage before. But also don't forget that Juggernaut is one of the strongest early - mid game heroes, so you should always be looking for a kill.
Few things to say about Hand of Midas
You shouldn't buy it if you do not have an opportunity to free farm. Both Hand of Midas and Battle Fury will significantly help with your farming, but if you are feeling that getting every last hit on your lane is difficult, then you should go straight onto your Battle Fury. Hand of Midas should be complete not later than minute 6 and you should buy it before completing your Phase Boots.
Stats or Blade Dance?
If you feel that you are capable of killing the enemy player on your lane, then you should max out the Blade Dance, because a lucky crit may get you a kill.
If you are laning against tanky heroes like Centaur Warrunner or Doom Bringer, then you should probably go for stats, because Juggernaut is not really capable of killing those heroes without risking in the early game.
You shouldn't leave the lane until you have a your Battle Fury. After that, going to jungle is one of the best options, battle fury gives enough HP regeneration to farm any creep camp. Once you have finished Manta Style you should stop farming and go kill the enemy team, nothing should stop you now. Don't forget to use Blade Fury to dodge incoming stans. At that point of the game, you should mostly rely on your auto-attacks. Once the team-fight is won, you should try to push as many towers/barracks as possible, because game should be finished before the late game starts.
If you are playing Juggernaut correctly, and following the guide, than the game shouldn't approach the late game. But if had, than one of the best ideas would be to split-push the enemy towers. Juggernaut has great pushing abilities and great escape. If you are feeling unsafe because there are no enemy players on a map, then simply switch on your first skill and teleport to the other lane. If the enemy team has a strong carry that deals more hand damage then you,then dont try to kill him with auto attacks, buy an Aghanim's Scepter and may be even a Refresher Orb